Nidhi Tiwari, Jyoti Upadhyay, Mohd Nazam Ansari*, Syed Shadab Raza, Wasim Ahmad and Mohammad Azam Ansari Pages 657 - 672 ( 16 )
Vascular Dementia (VaD) occurs due to cerebrovascular insufficiency, which leads to decreased blood circulation to the brain, thereby resulting in mental disabilities. The main causes of Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) are severe hypoperfusion, stroke, hypertension, large vessel disease (cortical), small Vessel Disease (subcortical VaD), strategic infarct, hemorrhage (microbleed), Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA), which leads to decreased cerebrovascular perfusion. Many metabolic disorders such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia are also related to VaD. The rodent experimental models provide a better prospective for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of new drugs. A plethora of experimental models are available that mimic the pathological conditions and lead to VaD. This review article updates the current knowledge on the basis of VaD, risk factors, pathophysiology, mechanism, advantages, limitations, and the modification of various available rodent experimental models.
Angiopathy, CADASIL, dementia, hypoperfusion, homocysteine, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA).
Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Delhi 110054, University of Petroleum & Energy Studies (UPES), School of Health Sciences, Energy Acres Building, Bidholi, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248007, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, 11942, Laboratory for Stem Cell and Restorative Neurology, Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Era University, Lucknow 226003, Department of Pharmacy, Mohammed Al-Mana College for Medical Sciences, Dammam, 34222, Department of Epidemic Disease Research, Institute for Research & Medical Consultations (IRMC), Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam 31441