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Role of Forkhead Transcription Factors of the O Class (FoxO) in Development and Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 9 ]

Author(s):

Shikha Goswami, Ozaifa Kareem, Ramesh K. Goyal, Sayed M. Mumtaz, Rajiv K. Tonk, Rahul Gupta and Faheem H. Pottoo*   Pages 709 - 721 ( 13 )

Abstract:


In the central nervous system (CNS), a specific loss of focal neurons leads to mental and neurological disorders like dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. AD is a neurological degenerative disorder, which is progressive and irreversible in nature and is the widely recognized reason for dementia in the geriatric populace. It affects 10% of people above the age of 65 and is the fourth driving reason for death in the United States. Numerous evidence suggests that the neuronal compartment is not the only genesis of AD, but transcription factors also hold significant importance in the occurrence and advancement of the disease. It is the need of the time to find the novel molecular targets and new techniques for treating or slowing down the progression of neurological disorders, especially AD. In this article, we summarised a conceivable association between transcriptional factors and their defensive measures against neurodegeneration and AD. The mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the class O (FoxO) illustrate one of the potential objectives for the development of new methodologies against AD and other neurocognitive disorders. The presence of FoxO is easily noticeable in the “cognitive centers” of the brain, specifically in the amygdala, hippocampus, and the nucleus accumbens. FoxO proteins are the prominent and necessary factors in memory formation and cognitive functions. FoxO also assumes a pertinent role in the protection of multiple cells in the brain by controlling the involving mechanism of autophagy and apoptosis and also modulates the process of phosphorylation of the targeted protein, thus FoxO must be a putative target in the mitigation of AD. This review features the role of FoxO as an important biomarker and potential new targets for the treatment of AD.

Keywords:

Alzheimer`s disease, neurological disorders, transcription factors, neurodegeneration, FoxO, biomarkers.

Affiliation:

Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Mehrauli- Badarpur Rd, Sector 3, PushpVihar, New Delhi, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, JK, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Mehrauli- Badarpur Rd, Sector 3, PushpVihar, New Delhi, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Mehrauli- Badarpur Rd, Sector 3, PushpVihar, New Delhi, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Mehrauli- Badarpur Rd, Sector 3, PushpVihar, New Delhi, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Mehrauli- Badarpur Rd, Sector 3, PushpVihar, New Delhi, Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University P.O.BOX 1982, Dammam 31441



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