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Beyond the Obvious: Smoking and Respiratory Infection Implications on Alzheimer's Disease

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 9 ]

Author(s):

Ridhima Wadhwa, Keshav Raj Paudel, Meenu Mehta , Shakti D. Shukla, Krishna Sunkara, Parteek Prasher, Nisha Panth, Rohit Goyal, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Gaurav Gupta, Alaa AA. Aljabali, Philip M. Hansbro and Kamal Dua*   Pages 698 - 708 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Tobacco smoke is not only a leading cause for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disorders, and lung and oral cancers, but also causes neurological disorders such as Alzheimer ’s disease. Tobacco smoke consists of more than 4500 toxic chemicals, which form free radicals and can cross blood-brain barrier resulting in oxidative stress, an extracellular amyloid plaque from the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide deposition in the brain. Further, respiratory infections such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus have also been involved in the induction and development of the disease. The necessary information collated on this review has been gathered from various literature published from 1995 to 2019. The review article sheds light on the role of smoking and respiratory infections in causing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, resulting in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review will be of interest to scientists and researchers from biological and medical science disciplines, including microbiology, pharmaceutical sciences and the translational researchers, etc. The increasing understanding of the relationship between chronic lung disease and neurological disease is two-fold. First, this would help to identify the risk factors and possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the development and progression of both diseases. Second, this would help to reduce the probable risk of development of AD in the population prone to chronic lung diseases.

Keywords:

Smoking, Pulmonary infections, Alzheimer’s disease, oxidative stress, infection, (Aβ) peptide deposition.

Affiliation:

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) & School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, Department of Chemistry, University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Bajhol, Sultanpur, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, 173 229, Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, School of Phamacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jagatpura, Mahal Road, Jaipur, Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007



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