Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Resolution-Associated Molecular Patterns (RAMPs) as Endogenous Regulators of Glia Functions in Neuroinflammatory Disease

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 7 ]

Author(s):

Tyler J. Wenzel, Evan Kwong, Ekta Bajwa and Andis Klegeris*   Pages 483 - 494 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes, facilitate the survival and health of all cells within the Central Nervous System (CNS) by secreting a range of growth factors and contributing to tissue and synaptic remodeling. Microglia and astrocytes can also secrete cytotoxins in response to specific stimuli, such as exogenous Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), or endogenous Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). Excessive cytotoxic secretions can induce the death of neurons and contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The transition between various activation states of glia, which include beneficial and detrimental modes, is regulated by endogenous molecules that include DAMPs, cytokines, neurotransmitters, and bioactive lipids, as well as a diverse group of mediators sometimes collectively referred to as Resolution-Associated Molecular Patterns (RAMPs). RAMPs are released by damaged or dying CNS cells into the extracellular space where they can induce signals in autocrine and paracrine fashions by interacting with glial cell receptors. While the complete range of their effects on glia has not been described yet, it is believed that their overall function is to inhibit adverse CNS inflammatory responses, facilitate tissue remodeling and cellular debris removal. This article summarizes the available evidence implicating the following RAMPs in CNS physiological processes and neurodegenerative diseases: cardiolipin (CL), prothymosin α (ProTα), binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), heat shock protein (HSP) 10, HSP 27, and αB-crystallin. Studies on the molecular mechanisms engaged by RAMPs could identify novel glial targets for development of therapeutic agents that effectively slow down neuroinflammatory disorders including AD.

Keywords:

αB-crystallin, astrocytes, cardiolipin, DAMPs, heat shock proteins, microglia, prothymosin, toll-like receptors.

Affiliation:

Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7, Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7, Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7, Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7



Read Full-Text article