Benito de Celis-Alonso*, Silvia S. Hidalgo-Tobón, Eduardo Barragán-Pérez, Eduardo Castro-Sierra, Pilar Dies-Suárez, Julio Garcia, Eduardo Moreno-Barbosa and Oscar Arias-Carrión* Pages 63 - 77 ( 15 )
Background: Impulsivity is a complex multi-dimensional combination of behaviors which include: ineffective impulse control, premature decision-making and inability to delay gratification.
Objective: The aim of this work was to explore how food odor perception and its emotional value is affected in impulsive children.
Methods: Here we compared two cohorts of impulsive and control children with ages between 10 and 16 years. Both groups underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, in which foodrelated odor-cues were presented to all of them.
Results: Differences in regions of blood oxygen level dependent activation, as well as connectivity, were calculated. Activations were significant for all odors in the impulsive group in the temporal lobe, cerebellum, supplementary motor area, frontal cortex, medial cingulate cortex, insula, precuneus, precentral, para-hippocampal and calcarine cortices.
Conclusion: Connectivity results showed that the expected emotional reward, based on odor perceived and processed in temporal lobes, was the main cue driving responses of impulsive children. This was followed by self-consciousness, the sensation of interaction with the surroundings and feelings of comfort and happiness, modulated by the precuneus together with somatosensory cortex and cingulum. Furthermore, reduced connectivity to frontal areas as well as to other sensory integration areas (piriform cortex), combined to show different sensory processing strategies for olfactory emotional cues in impulsive children. Finally, we hypothesize that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in modulating decision-making for impulsive children.
Olfaction, children, impulsivity, obesity, fMRI, connectivity.
Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Puebla, Puebla, Mexico, Address: Avenida San Claudio y 18 Sur, Colonia San Manuel, Edificio FM1-101B, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Departamento de Imagenologia, Hospital Infantil de Mexico , Departamento de Neurologia, Hospital Infantil de Mexico , Departamento de Imagenologia, Hospital Infantil de Mexico , Departamento de Imagenologia, Hospital Infantil de Mexico , Department of Cardiac Sciences, Stephenson Cardiac Imaging Centre, University of Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, AB, Canada, Address: 2500 University Dr. NW Calgary, Alberta, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Puebla, Puebla, Mexico, Address: Avenida San Claudio y 18 Sur, Colonia San Manuel, Edificio FM1-101B, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento y Sueno/Centro de Innovacion Medica Aplicada, Hospital General