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The Role of Innate Immune System Receptors in Epilepsy Research

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 7 ]

Author(s):

Jessica Cordero-Arreola, Rachel M. West, Julieta Mendoza-Torreblanca, Edna Mendez-Hernandez, Jose Salas-Pacheco, Manuel Menendez-Gonzalez, Rafael C. Freire, Sergio Machado, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Antonio E. Nardi and Oscar Arias-Carrion*   Pages 749 - 762 ( 14 )

Abstract:


Background & Objective: Epilepsy is one of the most complex neurological disorders and its study requires a broad knowledge of neurology and neuroscience. It comprises a diverse group of neurological disorders that share the central feature of spontaneous recurrent seizures, and are often accompanied by cognitive deficits and mood disorder. This condition is one of the most common neurological disorders. Until recently, alterations of neuronal activities had been the focus of epilepsy research. This neurocentric emphasis did not address issues that arise in more complex models of epileptogenesis. An important factor in epilepsy that is not regulated directly by neurons is inflammation and the immune response of the brain. Recent evidence obtained in rodent epilepsy models supports the role of immune responses in the initiation and maintenance of epilepsy. Recognition of exogenous pathogens by the innate immune system is mediated by some pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors leading to cell activation and cytokine production. Currently, these receptors have been the focus of epilepsy studies looking to determine whether the innate immune activation is neuroprotective or neurotoxic for the brain.

Conclusion: Here, we present the evidence in the literature of the involvement of key innate immune receptors in the development of epilepsy. We address some of the contradictory findings in these studies and also mention possible avenues for research into epilepsy treatments that target these receptors.

Keywords:

Cytokines, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, innate immune system, neurological, toll-like receptors.

Affiliation:

Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento y Sueno, Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Ciudad de Mexico, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento y Sueno, Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Ciudad de Mexico, Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Ciudad de Mexico, Instituto de Investigacion Cientifica, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Durango, Instituto de Investigacion Cientifica, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Durango, Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Espana, Asturias, Laboratory of Panic and Respiration, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Laboratory of Panic and Respiration, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Laboratorio de Neurociencias Moleculares e Integrativas, Escuela de Medicina, Division Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Anahuac Mayab, Merida, Laboratory of Panic and Respiration, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Unidad de Trastornos del Movimiento y Sueno (TMS), Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez. Calzada de Tlalpan 4800, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080

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