Jerzy Leszek, George E. Barreto, Kazimierz Gąsiorowski, Euphrosyni Koutsouraki, Marco Ávila-Rodrigues and Gjumrakch Aliev Pages 329 - 336 ( 8 )
Chronic inflammation is characterized by longstanding microglial activation followed by sustained release of inflammatory mediators, which aid in enhanced nitrosative and oxidative stress. The sustained release of inflammatory mediators propels the inflammatory cycle by increased microglial activation, promoting their proliferation and thus stimulating enhanced release of inflammatory factors. Elevated levels of several cytokines and chronic neuroinflammation have been associated with many neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system like age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’ disease, and tauopathies. This review highlights the basic mechanisms of neuroinflammation, the characteristics of neurodegenerative diseases, and the main immunologic responses in CNS neurodegenerative disorders. A comprehensive outline for the crucial role of microglia in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration and the role of Toll-like receptor signalling in coexistence of inflammatory mechanisms and oxidative stress as major factors responsible for progression of neurodegeneration have also been presented.
Microglia, neurodegenerative disorders, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, toll-like receptors.
“GALLY” International Biomedical Research Consulting LLC, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA