Taqi A. Khan, Iftekhar Hassan, Ausaf Ahmad, Asma Perveen, Shazia Aman, Saima Quddusi, Ibrahim M. Alhazza, Ghulam M. Ashraf and Gjumrakch Aliev Pages 310 - 320 ( 11 )
Free radicals are generated as byproduct of our body metabolism, and their adverse effect on normal functioning of our body is prevented by body’s own antioxidant machinery. Any perturbation in the defense mechanism of antioxidants inside body, its abnormal production or its induction from environment to our body lead to serious threats and is responsible for the development of various neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Perturbed antioxidants result in sensory and functional impairments in neuronal cells, which in turn cause NDDs. Free radical attack on neuronal cells plays a catastrophic role in NDDs. Impaired metabolism and generation of excessive reactive oxygen species also lead to a range of NDDs. Free radical induced toxicity is responsible for DNA injury, protein degradation, damage to tissue inflammation and cell death. Besides various genetic and environmental factors, free radical induced oxidative stress is also a major cause of NDDs. Application of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to counter oxidative stress can be an effective option in alteration of any neuronal impairment besides free radical scavenging. In the present manuscript, we have presented a comprehensive update on the symptoms, causes and cures of NDDs in relation with their dynamic association with oxidative stress.
Aging, antioxidant proteins, free radicals, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurodegenerative disorders, oxidative stress.
King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.